FYVE STAR, Inc.®
Are your runways mission capable? Are your pilots and crew standing by waiting for you to create a safe and secure takeoff? The product you choose at this moment is a critical decision.
NAAC®
NSN: 6850-01-435-8899

NAAC® is a sodium acetate-based solid runway deicer that meets FAA-approved specifications for use by commercial airports, Private Jet Companies and
Military Installations


A NEW GENERATION DEICER


FYVE STAR, Inc.® is pleased to distribute a new generation deicer - Cryotech NAAC® solid runway deicer.  Certified to U.S. Federal Aviation Administration approved specifications for use by airports and military units, NAAC is anhydrous grade sodium acetate. It is a high performance replacement for urea.

Airports and military units have benefited for the past several years from the performance and environmental advantages of Cryotech's liquid potassium acetate runway deicer, E36®, which replaced glycol-based products. Urea has long
been the standard solid deicer, providing safe operations but at some cost to the environment.

In 1995, Cryotech sponsored winter field trials
with trihydrate grade sodium acetate with the intention of finding an environmental alternative to urea and a complementary solid for E-36. Trihydrate grade is about 63% sodium acetate by weight. These trials resulted in trihydrate's
rejection primarily for performance reasons.

Work then continued on anhydrous grade sodium acetate - 97% anhydrous sodium acetate by
weight. Successful airport trials were conducted during the 1997-98 winter season. These tests showed significant performance gains from anhydrous grade in comparison to both urea and the earlier trihydrate grade sodium acetate. At the same time Michigan Technological University's Keweenaw Research Center conducted laboratory studies - much of which is summarized here. The new anhydrous formulation was certified to FAA-approved specifications and trade named Cryotech NAAC® solid runway deicer.

Using Cryotech's patented manufacturing process, NAAC is produced as a spherical pellet. This configuration minimizes dust, reduces compaction in storage, and results in even spread patterns.

NAAC contains less than 1% inhibitors by weight and is compatible with liquid potassium acetate deicers. Therefore, prewetting NAAC at the spreader spinner with E36 is an acceptable practice. It may also be used to deice roads, parking garages and walkways.

Summarizing NAAC'S advantages compared to urea:

*    Safer for the environment
*    Works at lower temperatures
*    Works faster
*    Requires less material
*    Lasts longer

Commercial airports and military bases concerned with the quality of storm water run-off that may be contaminated by the use of urea can benefit from NAAC. If water drains directly from runways and taxiways into a body of water, NPDES discharge permits are required. These permits necessitate regular monitoring of run-off to determine certain characteristics, including BOD and nitrogen (ammonia) contamination. Urea's breakdown product - ammonia - is toxic to fish at very low concentrations.

Unlike urea, NAAC does not contain nitrogen and has a relatively low BOD. And since the EPA has given airports direction to evaluate the use of acetate deicers in lieu of urea (Federal Register 9/95), switching to NAAC may be considered a
best management practice (BMP).


PRODUCT SPECIFICATIONS

Cryotech NAAC meets FAA-approved specification SAE AMS 1431 for deicing and anti-icing compounds in the form of a solid for use on runways and taxiways.

COMPOSITION - Sodium acetate (NaAc) 97% minimum by weight, anhydrous sodium acetate with less than 1% corrosion inhibitors.


PARTICLE SIZE    SIEVE    % PASSING
4    90
14    10
SHAPE    Spherical pellets
BULK DENSITY    50-54 pounds per cubic foot
0.8 to 0.86 grams per cubic centimeter
TYPICAL pH    8 to 10.5 in a 10% solution

PACKAGING    25 kg (55 lb.) poly bags; 1000 kg (1 metric ton - 2205 lbs.) Super Sacks, bulk

Minimum orders: 40 - 25 kg bags, 1 Super Sack, 21 metric tons (46,305 lbs.) bulk

See product MSDS for more information.


PRODUCT APPLICATION

NAAC may be used in the same manner as urea. However, less NAAC will be required to accomplish the same deicing objective, because
it is more effective. In 1993, Transport Canada reported the following test results: The required application rate for sodium acetate is about two-thirds of that for urea to achieve similar effectiveness.

*    NAAC may be used as an anti-icer or as a deicer.

*    NAAC's effectiveness as a deicer - to melt through pack - is enhanced by prewetting with
E36 at the spreader spinner. Prewetting causes NAAC to stick and begin melting almost immediately after application. The freezing point of the combined products is lower than that of NAAC alone.

*    NAAC may be used as an anti-icer, applied just as the storm event begins. With a small amount of precipitation on the surface - freezing rain, ice or snow - NAAC will activate, and keep ice bonds from forming at the surface. This anti-icing strategy is an effective addition to liquid anti-icing programs during freezing rain conditions.

*    NAAC may be used in conjunction with E36 to solve serious pack conditions. First, apply NAAC to the pack. After holes are punched in the pack, apply E36 - the liquid then has a path to the pavement surface and quickly breaks the pack
prior to mechanical removal.

*    The amount of NAAC to be applied is determined by the surface temperature, the ambient temperature, and the quality and quantity of pack. Conditions vary; therefore, the application rate guide suggests starting points to be adjusted locally as required.  The guide provides application rates on light ice that achieve a wet, ice-free
surface at various temperatures.

*    Generally, the longer ice remains, the stronger
it bonds to the surface, making removal more difficult. For this reason early application enhances the effectiveness of deicers.

For further application/handling information, please see the NAAC Commercial/Airport Application Guide.

DEICER FREEZING POINTS

Deicer freezing points were determined by Michigan Tech using standard U.S. Federal Highway Administration test methods. Freezing point is fundamental in assessing the effectiveness of deicing chemicals, that is, the lower the freezing point the more efficient the deicer.


PREWETTING

NAAC is most effective as a deicer when prewet
at the spreader spinner with E36 liquid runway deicer. Begin at 10% E36 by weight of NAAC
and adjust for local conditions.

EXOTHERMIC VERSUS ENDOTHERMIC

NAAC is exothermic meaning it gives off heat as
it dissolves. Trihydrate grade sodium acetate and urea are endothermic, actually absorbing heat as they go into solution. Because it is exothermic, NAAC penetrates ice faster. The deicers are dissolved in water and the resulting maximum temperature change is measured at equilibrium.
The dilute solution containing NAAC warms by 22°F (12°C); while trihydrate and urea absorb heat and cool the water by approximately 29°F (16°C).

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS


Tests with NAAC show it readily biodegrades
at low temperatures and has a relatively low biological oxygen demand (BOD) compared to urea. Toxicity tests rate NAAC as relatively harmless to aquatic life, the most favorable classification used by the environmental community. Urea's breakdown product - ammonia - is toxic to fish. For these reasons, NAAC is considered safer for the environment than urea. As suggested by the FAA, the following general summary of environmental
and hazard information is provided.

*    BIODEGRADABILITY

Method BOD5 at 20°C (68°F) = 0.58 g
oxygen/g or g O2/g    EPA 405.1/SM5210B

COD = 0.78 g O2/g EPA 410.4/SM5220D

*    TOXICITY

The aquatic toxicity of NAAC has been determined in accordance with EPA Method
40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 797.1300 and 797.1400 using test species required by regulatory agencies for permitted discharges. The LC50 concentration is the highest concentration at which 50% of the test species survived.

EPA 40 CFR 797.1300 Daphnid Acute
Toxicity Test
Daphnia magna, static system
48-hour LC50 = 2400 mg/l
EPA 40 CFR 797.1400 Fish Acute Toxicity
Test Pimephales promelas, static system
24-hour LC50 = 2750 mg/l


The University of Utah has reported the following values for anhydrous grade sodium acetate.

LD50 (oral-rat) 3530 mg/kg
LD50 (SCU-mouse) 8000 mg/kg
LD50 (IV-mouse) 335 mg/kg

ROADS, PARKING GARAGES AND WALKWAYS

NAAC is selected for non-airside applications, primarily because it does not contain chlorides that cause corrosion to steel embedded in concrete. Additionally, NAAC is effective at much lower temperatures, 5°F (-15°C), than sodium chloride and urea, which lose their
effect below 20°F (-7°C). Note: If concrete quality is the primary concern - for example
new concrete - then Cryotech CMA® is recommended.


EQUIPMENT CONSIDERATIONS


NAAC may be applied with existing solid
deicer spreading equipment. Spreaders should be calibrated for accurate application. NAAC weighs 50-54 pounds per cubic foot, while
urea is typically 40-45 pounds. Routine washing with warm soapy water is recommended when equipment is removed from service, followed
by a thorough washing after the deicing season.


STORAGE & HANDLING CONSIDERATIONS


NAAC should be stored in its original container until operators are comfortable with alternative storage methods, like flat bulk storage. Storage in silos should be avoided. Since NAAC absorbs
water more easily than urea - making
 it work faster - it also requires care to avoid
caking caused by excessive moisture. Like
any solid deicer, excessive handling may
cause dustiness.

Sodium acetate pellets have a natural tendency to loosely stick to one another during storage. We recommend these procedures for emptying bags if compacted:

*    Supersacks - while holding the bag with a
forklift, lower the bag a short distance onto the floor 2-3 times to loosen any compacted
product on the bottom. Then, use the drawstring chute at the bottom of the bag (or knife to cut across the bottom) allowing the product to flow.

*    25 kg bags - drop the bag onto a hard surface
at about a two foot height 2-3 times (similar to the way you loosen a bag of ice).

Contact of NAAC with skin or eyes may cause
mild irritation and excess inhalation of dust
may irritate the upper respiratory tract. Therefore, operators should wear suitable protective clothing.
At a minimum this includes safety glasses with side shields and rubber gloves. Adequate ventilation is important to minimize dust levels. Please review the NAAC Technical Bulletin #2 and the NAAC Commercial/Airport Application Guide for additional storage considerations. See the MSDS for additional information.


SPILL HANDLING PROCEDURES


NAAC is not expected to present environmental problems. If NAAC should spill or otherwise be unsuitable for normal airside applications, it
may be used in an alternate manner for deicing non-airside surfaces or as an additive to sand.
Product unsuitable for any use may be disposed of
in a sanitary landfill unless state or local regulations prohibit such disposal.


CONTAINER DISPOSAL

Empty containers may be disposed of in a sanitary landfill unless state or local regulations prohibit such disposal.


CERTIFICATION TO FAA SPECIFICATIONS


The FAA has established standards for solid runway deicers. SAE AMS 1431 covers all
solid deicing/anti-icing compounds including NAAC. This specification identifies material
and environmental properties, and establishes minimum standards for material compatibility and performance. NAAC meets or exceeds all requirements of this standard as indicated below.

Current certifications are supplied at customer request.


BID SPECIFICATIONS




Deicers meeting FAA standards vary in formulation and have different performance characteristics. It is, therefore, important to
pay close attention to bid specifications written into product solicitations. Failure to properly consider all the elements associated with product formulation, product quality, product performance, and the manufacturer's ability to supply can compromise airport operations.
See the guide specification for anhydrous
grade sodium acetate.




NAAC® is manufactured in the United States
by Cryotech Deicing Technology.
FYVE STAR, Inc.® is the source supplier to the US Military.




FYVE STAR, Inc.® is certified by the SBA
as a Small, Woman-Owned,
Veteran Owned Business.

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